Originally from the word "ibidem", meaning "in the same spot," usually used in the endnote, footnote, bibliography, or school reference to refer to the source cited in the previous note or list item. This is identical to īdem, literally meaning "the same," which is widely used in legal citations.
To find the source of the ibid., it is necessary to look at the reference before it. It might be another chapter of a book that has just been listed, for instance. The ibid abbreviation. Often refers to the reference or origin immediately preceding this.
Example of Ibid:Maria Magdalena Delos Santos, “The Language of Love,” School Write Ups and How-tos 65, no. 8 (2001): 609. Delos Santos, 537. Ibid. Ibid., 123.
kase yung ibid Ibid. is an abbreviation for the Latin word ibīdem, meaning "in the same place"
loc.cit (latin, short for loco citato, meaning "in the place cited")
in oed it is loc.sit