mumbled, whispered, said, called, shouted, yelled, screamed, shrieked
- hermit, recluse, loner, solitary, friendly, sociable, outgoing, gregarious,
- flat, shallow, deep, fathomless
-freezing, frosty, cold, chilly, nippy, warm, hot, sizzling, steaming, burning, boiling
- infinitesimal, tiny, small, short, tall, big, huge, enormous, gigantic, humungous, titanic, immense
- terrifying, frightening, horrifying, scary, creepy, spooky, friendly, nice, buddy
- slow, snail-like, sluggish, quick, speedy, swift, rapid, blistering, supersonic
- never, rarely, hardly ever, sometimes, often, always
- timid, diffident, pusillanimous, craven
- equanimous, imperturbable, irascible, truculent, malevolent
- unstinting, spendthrift, extravagant, prodigal, profligate
- full, peckish, hungry, starvingcline -a continuum with an infinite number of gradations from one extreme to the other.
reliability is a subjective term which can not be measured precisely, but today there are instruments which can estimate the reliability of any research. reliability is the repeatability of any research, research instrument, tool or procedure. if any research yields similar results each time it is undertaken with similar population and with similar procedures, it is called to be a reliable research. suppose a research is conducted on the effects of single parenting on the class performance of the children. if the results conclude that it causes low grades in class, these results should have to be reliable for another sample taken from a similar population. more the results are similar; more reliability is present in the research.
validity is the strength with which we can make research conclusions, assumptions or propositions true or false. validity determines the applicability of the research. validity of the research instrument can be defined as the suitability of the research instrument to the research problem or how accurately the instrument measures the problem. some researchers say that validity and reliability are co-related, but the validity is much more important than reliability. without validity, research goes in the wrong direction. to keep the research on-track define your concepts in the best possible manner so that no error occur during the measurement.
accuracy is also the degree to which each research process, instrument, and tool is related to each other. accuracy also measures whether research tools have been selected in best possible manner and research procedures suits the research problem or not. for example if a research has to be conducted on the trans-gender people, several data collection tools can be used depending on the research problems but if you find that population less cooperative the best way is to observe them rather than submitting questionnaire because in questionnaire either they will give biased responses or they will not return the questionnaires at all. so choosing the best data collection tool improves the accuracy of research.
credibility comes with the use of the best source of information and best procedures in research. if you are using second-hand information in your research due to any reason your research might complete in less time but its credibility will be at stake because secondary data has been manipulated by human beings and is therefore not very valid to use in research. a certain percentage of secondary data can be used if the primary source is not available but basing a research completely on secondary data when primary data can be gathered is least credible. when researcher gives accurate references in the research the credibility of the research increases but fake references also decrease the credibility of the research.
generalization is the extent to which a research findings can be applied to larger population. when a researcher conducts a study he/she chooses a target population and from this population he takes a small sample to conduct the research. this sample is representative of the whole population so the findings should also be. if research findings can be applied to any sample from the population, the results of the research are said to be generalizable.
empirical nature of research means that the research has been conducted following rigorous scientific methods and procedures. each step in the research has been tested for accuracy and is based on real life experiences. quantitative research is easier to prove scientifically than qualitative research. in qualitative research biases and prejudice are easy to occur.
systematic approach is the only approach to carry on a research. no research can be conducted haphazardly. each step must follow other. there are set of procedures that have been tested over a period of time and are thus suitable to use in research. each research, therefore, should follow a procedure.
controlled in real life experience there are many factors that affect an outcome. a single event is often a result of several factors. when similar event is tested in research, due to the broader nature of factors that effect that event, some factors are taken as controlled factors while others are tested for a possible effect. the controlled factors or variables should have to be controlled rigorously. in pure sciences, it is very easy to control such elements because experiments are conducted in the laboratory but in social sciences it becomes difficult to control these factors because of the nature of research.
pag-iralHey ;)Hope this helps...