answer: The theory of continental drift is most associated with the scientist Alfred Wegener. In the early 20th century, Wegener published a paper explaining his theory that the continental landmasses were “drifting” across the Earth, sometimes plowing through oceans and into each other.
1. the south american plate is a major tectonic plate which includes the continent of south america as well as a sizable region of the atlantic ocean seabed extending eastward to the african plate, with which it forms the southern part of the mid-atlantic ridge.
the easterly edge is a divergent boundary with the african plate; the southerly edge is a complex boundary with the antarctic plate, the scotia plate, and the sandwich plate; the westerly edge is a convergent boundary with the subducting nazca plate; and the northerly edge is a boundary with the caribbean plate and the oceanic crust of the north american plate. at the chile triple junction, near the west coast of the taitao–tres montes peninsula, an oceanic ridge known as the chile rise is actively subducting under the south american plate.
2.two plate diverge along oceanic ridges where new lithosphere is created. when two oceanic plate diverge then new sea floor is created by a process called sea floor spreading and features like mid oceanic ridges, volcanoes & young lava flows forms
5. if two tectonic plates collide, they form a convergent plate boundary. usually, one of the converging plates will move beneath the other, which is known as subduction. deep trenches are often formed where tectonic plates are being subducted and earthquakes are common. as the sinking plate moves deeper into the mantle, fluids are released from the rock causing the overlying mantle to partially melt. the new magma (molten rock) rises and may erupt violently to form volcanoes, often building arcs of islands along the convergent boundary. these island arcs are always landward of the neighboring trenches.
when two plates are moving away from each other, we call this a divergent plate boundary. along these boundaries, magma rises from deep within the earth and erupts to form new crust on the lithosphere. most divergent plate boundaries are underwater (iceland is an exception) and form submarine mountain ranges called oceanic spreading ridges. while the process is volcanic, volcanoes and earthquakes along oceanic spreading ridges are not as violent as they are at convergent plate boundaries.
the third type of plate boundary occurs where tectonic plates slide horizontally past each other. this is known as a transform plate boundary. as the plates rub against each other, huge stresses are set up that can cause portions of the rock to break, resulting in earthquakes. places where these breaks occur are called faults. a well-known example of a transform plate boundary is the san andreas fault in california.
a transform boundary is where the plates are passing each other like if you press your palms together but try sliding them at the same time. if you try that you will notice that the motion occurs in jumps rather than smoothly (pressing palms together as they slide). the plates move in jumps as well when the stress builds up past the bonds or friction holding the plates together. that is an earthquake when it happens at the plate boundary. other things can happen geologically as well as you might imagine, for instance normal faulting from pulling and even thrust faulting from compression effects because the plates aren’t completely smooth and sometimes get stuck in places. big rocks can be pulled apart and broken or crushed together and heated from the friction. within the transform fault will often be smaller strike slip faulting and is part of this, too. generally though, earthquakes will be the most common answer.